非谓语动词之ing式详解思维导图,暴力拆解非谓语动词,化繁为简(练习有解析,)

本篇文章主要想帮助朋友们解决非谓语动词的概念问题,涉及到英语句式核心构架和思维特点,对学习英语语法至关重要。另外,还顺便介绍英语句式的两个普遍特征,朋友们一看就会恍然大悟。后面的细枝末节部分,后期我会分别加以阐述。

这个问题让大多数学过英语的人感到头痛。其实很简单,顾名思义,非谓语动词指不能单纯作谓语的动词。换句话说就是,动词有两个用途,一个就是作谓语,叫做谓语动词,另一个就是不是谓语的动词,当然就是非谓语动词了。就像人分为两种——男人和非男人。这一点对理解非谓语动词很关键。

第一部分 什么叫非谓语动词? 为了说明这个问题,我想简要说明一什么是谓语?一个完整的英语句子,至少有两部分组成(祈使句除外,因为祈使句也是省略主语或其他成分的句子)主语就是句子叙述的主体,表明这句话描述说明什么,谓语就是帮助主语描述或说明的成分。谓语由动词构成。注意:有单个的动词或动词短语构成的叫简单谓语;有情态动词或助动词+动词构成叫复合谓语。另外,系动词+表语的结构归纳为复合谓语,因为表语的作用就是表面和描述主语的性质特征的成分,系动词起到联系主语和表语纽带。比如:他是个教师。主语是he ,a teacher 就是表语,但这样不是句子啊,只好用is这个系动词来把他们两个系在一起。况且,系动词也不能单独作谓语。比如:he is ,you are ,I am 就不是句子。简单说,有系动词必须有表语,有表语必须有系动词,谁也离不开谁。

必须举例说明了:I like English.简单动词

He is looking for his watch.动词短语

He can swim. (情态动词+动词)

He must finish his homework before 6 o’clock. (情态动词+动词)

He is a teacher.(系动词+表语)

You look fine. (系动词+表语)

关于什么是表语,哪些家伙可以当系动词,以后再慢慢聊。

现在拿到一个句子你可以分清哪个是谓语动词了吗?不明白对照上面的几种情况,就会很容易找出。

终于可以言归正传了,能够分清谓语动词,就认出哪些是非谓语动词了。就是不是谓语的动词,都是非谓语动词。

请看下面的例句:

1.I have just finished doing my home work.

2.People found the thief escaped.

3.I sawthe horsetied to a tree.

4.To see is to believe.

5.I've never heard the song sung in English.

6.Imeanto go there at once.

7.We must learn to tellfriends from enemies.

8.He asked us to sing an English song.

9.It's a waste of time arguing with him.

10.It's no use taking this kind of medicine.

以上十个句子中,都有非谓语动词,你找到没有?记住一个句子只有一个谓语,其余的都是非谓语动词,下面下划线的就是非谓语动词,黑色的就谓语动词。

1.I have just finished doing my home work.

2.People found the thief escaped.

3.I saw the horse tied to a tree.

4.To see is to believe.

5.I've never heard the song sung in English.

6.I mean to go there at once.

7.We must learn to tell friends from enemies.

8.He asked us to sing an English song.

9.It's a waste of time arguing with him.

10.It's no use taking this kind of medicine.

第二部分,为什么会出现非谓语动词呢?

很多学英语的学生都会困惑,英语就是麻烦,搞这么多名堂出来,让学习者混淆,其实不然,这正说明英语的机械,直接,我经常对我的学生说,英国人死脑经。因为我们中国人脑袋灵活,造成我们的语言也很灵活,灵活的无拘无束。英语就不行了,他必须按照一定样式来,不然就不能表现英国人的死脑经。举例说明:他要求我唱一首英语歌曲。这样的句子里面有两个动词,要求(ask)和唱(sing),要在英语里面就必须分清哪个谓语,剩下的就是非谓语动词了,否则就是错句子。He asked me.他要求我。这样这句话就没有说完,表达不清楚了。Sing an English song.同样也不是句子,谁唱呢?不清楚。怎么办?只有把他们连起来。He asked me to sing an English song.这里asked 就是谓语动词,to sing 是非谓语动词。这样表达就更完整了。

这里的sing 前面加to 或者怎么变化是前面的ask 来决定的,不是随便加的。但这里面也是有规律可循的。这是以后的话题了。第三部分 非谓语动词有哪些形式?非谓语动词有不定式,分词 和动名词三种形式。(一招分清——表面是动词,但不能作谓语,谓语一般受到主语的限制,有人称和数的变化)

一、动词不定式的形式

动词不定式的用法

动词不定式可以充当谓语之外的所有句有子成分,动词不定式可以带宾语或状语构成不定式短语,没有人称和数的变化,但有时态和语态的变化。以动词do为例,有下面几种变化形式。

1.作主语(1)动词不定式作主语,一般表示具体的某次动作,谓语动词用单数形式。例如:

①To see is to believe.

②To master English is of great importance.

(2)不定式或不定式短语作主语时,常用it作形式主语,构成'It is + adj+for sb.+to do'结构,或It is +adj+for sth +to be done。为什么要这样变化呢?原因就是死脑经惹的祸。因为汉语完全可以这样说:to give up smoking is impossible for him.但英语就不行了,这样的句子外表上看着头重脚轻,不符合歪果仁的思维习惯,只好借助于一个it 作为代替。放在句首,这样就前面短后面长了。注意:英语里面经常借it办事,复杂的句子都喜欢前面短,后面长。这两个特征一定要知道。不信随便找几个句子都是这样。就是因为英国人思维和我们中国人不一样,他们是重要的东西先说,附件的,补充的,限定的东西后面慢慢加。例下面的句子都是这样,it代替后面的to do 成分,而且重要最先讲。他们是It is impossible…,It is not easy…,It is difficult…和It is impossible…。

①It is impossible for him to give up smoking.

②It is not easy to find your way in the mountain.

③It is difficult for the problem to be solved.

④It is impossible for my question to be answered in his absence.

2.作宾语(1)动词不定式作宾语时,常跟在某些及物动词后面,常见的有:agree,dare,decide,expect,help,hope,learn,manage,offer,pretend,promise,refuse,want, intend, fail, wish, choose等。例如:

①I mean to go there at once.

②We must learn to tell friends from enemies.

(2)不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补足语,往往把不定式短语放在宾补之后,而用it作形式宾语。句型为'主语+find (feel, think, believe, consider,etc) +it+形容词/名词+to do sth'。这里的it又出现了吧!就是刚才说过的原因。为了句子好看(it 代替后面的to do 短语),重要东西先讲(划线部分)。例如:

①I think it necessary to report the thing to the teacher.

②I find it interesting to work with him.

(3)动词不定式还可以用作介词except、but和besides的宾语,如果介词前为动词do的某种形式,则后面接不带to的不定式,否则带to。cannot choose but、cannot help but和cannot but后的不定式也省略to。

常用句型有:

There is nothing to do but+do 例如:There is nothing to do but wait.

do nothing but/except+do例如:We can do nothing but wait.

cannot help/choose but+do例如:We cannot choose but wait.

have no choice but to do例如:We have no choice but to wait.

3.作表语

动词不定式作表语,常放在系动词之后,表示将来的动作,主语常常是表示意向、打算、计划的词,如wish,task,purpose,duty,job等。例如:

①To teach is to learn.

②My job is to help the patient.

【注意】如果在主语中(通常在主语从句或修饰主语的定语从句中)有实义动词do时,作表语的动词不定式省略to。例如:

All I want to do now (What I want to do now) is fill my stomach.

4.作定语不定式可以放在名词、代词、序数词、the only和形容词最高级等后面作定语。常被不定式修饰的名词有:chance,need,promise,time,opportunity,way等。不定式常表示将来的动作,计划的动作,偶尔的一次性的动作。这里也反映了英语的典型特征,重要东西先说,补充的,修饰的,限制的统统放后面。

(1)不定式与被修饰的名词往往构成逻辑上的关系。如果不定式与该句的主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系,则不定式用主动形式;如果不定式与该句的主语不构成逻辑上的主谓关系,则不定式用被动形式。例如:

①He is not a man to tell lies.

②There will not be enough space to stand in on the earth.

③--- I will go home tomorrow,do you have anything to be taken to your parents?

---No,thanks.

(2)作定语的不定式与所修饰的名词之间是动宾关系, 而且不定式动词又是不及物动词时,应在该动词上加上一个介词。例如:

①He has a nice pen to write with.

②He is looking for a room to live in.

③It is said that the best way to travel by is on foot.

5.作状语(同样的道理,重要的东西先讲,其余的统统放后面)

不定式作状语时,可表示目的、原因、结果或条件。例如:

I'm very glad to hear the news. (原因)

不定式作目的状语时,常可构成in order to, so as to 例如:

He got up early so as not to be late.

不定式可以跟在表语的形容词之后作状语。例如:

The question is difficult to answer.

有些不定式短语可以做独立成份,通常放在句首,有时置于句中或句未,须用逗号的开,如:to begin with,to be honest,to tell you the truth等。例如:

To be honest,my English is poor.

不定式作结果状语常用如下句型:

Too + 形容词/副词 + to do sth例如:

He is too young to go to school.

形容词/副词 + enough + to do sth例如:

He is old enough to dress himself.

enough+名词 +to do sth例如:

I have enough money to buy a car.

such +(形容词)名词 +as to do sth例如:

He is such a clever boy as to work out the question quickly.

so + 形容词/副词 + as to do sth例如:

He is so clever a boy as to work out the question quickly.

【注意】不定式作状语,其逻辑主语与句子主语必须一致。

【注意】不定式可以放在only后面表示未曾预料的结果。例如:

①He hurried to the railway station,only to find that the train had left.

②I got to his house ,only to be told that he wasn't in.

6.作补语(宾语补足语和主语补足语),有两种情况:(1)接带to的不定式作宾语补足语,这类动词或动词短语有:ask, tell, invite, force, get, beg, allow, help, wish, want, like, hate, prefer, expect, encourage, advise, persuade, instruct, permit, request, order, warn, cause, urge, call on, depend on, long for, wait for等,构成V+sb.+to do结构。这里的 to do 就是非谓语动词了,之所以加 to 就是受到谓语动词的影响。例如:

①We are longing for / wating for the new term to begin.

(2)在感官动词(see, hear, feel, listen to , notice, watch, observe等)和使役动词(let, have,make )后的补足语中,不定式不带to。但这类句子变成被动语态时,必须带to。(注意:let, have不用于被动语态)例如:

①I saw him play in the park.

→He was seen to play in the park.

②The boss made those men work day and night.

→Those men were made to work day and night.

注意:tell、advise等动词后面可以接'连接代词或连接副词+to do'作宾语补足语。例如:

You did not tell me how to pronounce the word.

二 动名词的形式动名词的基本形式是由动词末尾加-ing形式构成,动名词具有动词和名词的特点:动词的特点体现在它可以有自己的宾语、状语和补足语,有时态和语态的变化;名词的特点体现在它可以作主语、宾语、表语和定语。一、动名词的时态、语态和否定形式动名词的时态有一般式和完成式;语态有主动和语态和被动语态;动名词的否定式是直接在其前面加上not。以do为例,列表说明如下:

1、 动名词的时态。动名词的一般式表示的动作通常是一般性的动作,即不是明确地发生在过去、现在或将来的动作,或者是与谓语动词所表示的动作同时发生的动作;完成式所表示的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前。例如:

①I am interested in playing basketball.

②He didn't mention having met you at the meeting.

2、 动名词的语态。如果句子的主语是该动名词动作的承受者,即句子的主语与动名词构成逻辑上的动宾关系,则动名词要用被动形式。例如:

①She didn't mind being left at home.(句子的主语she与动词leave构成动宾关系,且动作基本同时发生。)

②I forgot having been told about it. (句子的主语I与动词tell构成动宾关系,且动作已经完成。)

二、动名词的语法功能1.作主语:动名词做主语可以放在句首,有时候也可以用it做形式主语,常常构成一些固定句型,如:It's a waste of time doing...;It's no use/good doing...例如:

①Teaching is my full-time job.

②Writing an English composition is not easy.

③It's a waste of time arguing with him.

④It's no use taking this kind of medicine.

2.作宾语:(1)作动词的宾语。只接动名词作宾语的常见动词有:resist、mind、suggest、delay、keep、look forward to、enjoy、include、appreciate、imagine、practice、finish、succeed in、consider、can't help、miss等。例如:

①I have just finished doing my home work.

②I suggested asking his brother for some money.

③He keeps buying expensive maps.

【注意】以下几个动词或短语后面跟动名词作宾语和跟动词不定式作宾语意义不同:mean,remember,stop,forget,regret,try,go on。

(1) remember(记得),forget(忘记),regret(后悔)后接不定式指该不定式所表示的动作还未发生,后接动名词(有时可用完成式),则指该动名词所表示的动作已经发生。比较:Remember to post the letter. 记住把这封信寄了。(“寄信”未发生)I remember posting the letter. 我记得寄了那封信。(“寄信”已发生)He forgot to pay me the money. 他忘记要给我付钱了。(“付钱”未发生)He forgot paying me the money. 他忘记曾给我付过钱。(“付钱”发生了)

(2) try 后接不定式表示设法做某事,接动名词表示做某事试试(看有什么效果)。如:I’ll try to come tomorrow. 我明天设法来。Let’s try knocking at the back door. 咱们敲敲后门试试。

(3) mean 后接不定式表示打算(想要)做某事,接动名词表示意味着(做某事,接动名词表示意味着要)做某事。如:He did not mean to hurt you. 他不是有意要伤害你。This illness will mean going to hospital. 得了这种病就意味着要住院。

(4) stop 后接动名词表示停止做某事,接不定式表示停下正在做的事去做另一事。如:He stopped speaking, and there was not a sound in the room. 他停止讲话,房里一点声音也没有了。He stopped to listen, but there was no more sound. 他停下来听,但再也没有听到什么声音。(stop后接的不定式不是宾语,而是目的状语)

(5) can’t help后接动名词表示禁不住做某事,接不定式表示不能帮助做某事。如:mes New Roman''>后接动名词表示禁不住做某事,接不定式表示不能帮助做某事。如:He couldn’t help crying when he heard the news. 他听到这个消息时禁不住哭了。The medicine can’t help to get rid of your cold. 这药不能帮你治好感冒。注e69da5e6ba90e799bee5baa6e79fa5e9819331333236396531:go on to do sth 和go on doing sth 也有类似差别:前者表示做完某事后接着做另一事,后者表示继续做正在做的事。如:You oughtn’t to go on living this way. 你不应该再这样生活下去了。(go on 后接doing通常被认为是现在分词而不是动名词)

Go on to do the other exercises after you have finished this one. 做完这个练习后, 请接着做其他的练习

【注意】既可接动名词也可接不定式作宾语但语态不同的动词在 need, want, require等表示“需要”的动词后,接不定式和动名词均可,且含义也相同,但是语态不同:接动名词时用主动式表示被动含义,接不定式时则要用被动式表示”My coat needs mending [to be mended]. 我的外套需要缝补一下。Your coat wants brushing [to be brushed]. 你的大衣需要刷一刷。

(2)作介词的宾语,常用于固定短语和句型中。如:be/get used to,devote...to...,look forward to,pay attention to,get down to,think of,be proud of,prevent...from...,keep...from....,be engaged in,feel like以及have some/no/any difficulty(trouble) in, have fun(pleasure) in, have a good(hard) time,there is no need/use/good/harm/hurry(in)等。例如:

①We are thinking of making a new plan for the next term.

②There is no need arguing with him.

3.作表语:动名词作表语时,句子的主语常常是表示无生命的名词或what引导的名词性从句。作表语的动名词与主语通常是对等关系,表示主语的内容,主语与表语可互换位置。例如:

①My job is teaching. = Teaching is my job.

②Her full-time job is laying eggs.

=Laying eggs is her full-time job.

③What I hate most is being laughed at.

4.作定语:动名词作定语表示性质或用途。

a washing machine = a machine for washing

a swimming pool = a pool for swimming

三 分词的形式 (现在分词和过去分词)

过去分词只有一种形式,即done,没有其他变化形式,而现在分词有时态和语态的变化。如下表所示(以do为例)。

分词的语法功能:1. 作定语:现在分词作定语,可以表示名词的用途,也可以表示主动意义或正在进行的动作或当时的状态,此时现在分词在意义上相当于一个定语从句。过去分词作定语表示被动或完成。一般而言,单个的分词作定语要放在被修饰词之前,分词短语作定语放在被修饰词之后。例如:

a developing country = a country which is developing

a sleeping boy= a boy who is sleeping

①The man standing at the window is our teacher.

② Polluted air and water are harmful to people's health.

③The building built last year was a hospital.

④The meeting being held now is very important.

【注意】如果两个动词有先后,一般不能用现在分词作定语,而用定语从句,即现在分词的完成主动式having done以及完成被动式having been done不能作定语。如,我们不能说:

I have heard of the accident having happened yesterday.而是用定语从句代替:I have heard of the accident that happened yesterday.

再如,我们不能说:

I didn't find my wallet having been stolen.而用定语从句:

I didn't find my wallet which had been stolen.

2. 作状语:现在分词作状语。表时间、原因、条件、结果、伴随(方式)等。

特点:1.分词短语作状语,其逻辑主语须与句子的主语一致.

2. 表示时间关系的分词短语有时可由连词while 或when 引导。

3.如果主语不一致,要采用独立主格结构。

现在分词的一般式doing和完成主动式having done作状语时,与句子的主语构成逻辑上的主谓关系。doing表示的动作和句子的谓语动词所表示的动作基本同时发生或现在分词的动作正在发生;having done则表示其动作先于句子的谓语动词的动作发生。例如:

①Hearing the bell,the students entered the classroom.(时间)

②Hearing the cry for help, he rushed out.(时间)

③While reading the book, he nodded from time to time.(时间)

④Having finished his work,he went home.(时间)

⑤Seeing from the hill, you can get the whole town.(条件)

⑥Not having received an answer,he decided to write another letter.(原因)

⑦The students ran out of the classroom, talking and laughing .(伴随)

⑧Football is played all around the world, making it the most popular sport.(结果)

过去分词done和现在分词的完成被动式having been done作状语时,与句子的主语构成逻辑上的动宾关系。而且表示的动作在句子的谓语动词之前就已经发生。例如:

①Given(=Having been given)a wrong number,I couldn't contact him over the phone.(原因)

②Having been warned many times,they became more and more careful in doing the job.(时间)

③Seen from the hill, the whole town is beautiful.(条件)④Not satisfied with the result, we decided to do the experiment again.(原因)⑤He entered the room,followed by his girlfriend .(伴随)

⑥If allowed, he would eat all the food in the house.(条件)

【注意】分词作状语时,如果分词的逻辑主语与句子的主语不一致,则通常在它前面加上它的主语构成独立主格结构,即'n. + -ed/-ing'。(非谓语动词及其短语前面带有逻辑主语,逻辑主语的代词又是主格,故常称为'独立主格'。)例如:

①Her work finished(=After her work had been finished), she sat down for a cup of tea.②There being no taxis(=Because there was no taxis), we had to walk.

③Weather permitting (=If weather permits), they will go on an outing tomorrow.

④An important lecture to be given tomorrow (=Because an important lecture will be given tomorrow), the professor has to stay up late into the night.

⑤He was lying on the grass,his hands crossed under his head(=and his hands were crossed under his head)

有时也用'with(without)+名词(或代词宾格)+分词'的结构表示伴随状况的独立主格结构。例如:He fell asleep with the lamp burning.

补充:其他形式的独立主格结构(n. +不定式; n. +介词短语; n. +形容词; n. +副词)例如:

①He is going to make a model plane, some old parts to help.

②The boy goes to the classroom,book in hand.

③So many people absent, the meeting had to be called off.

④The meeting over, they all went home.

3. 作宾补:现在分词做宾补的两大特征:一是宾语与现在分词之间与主语之间有主谓关系;二是现在分词所表示的动作正在进行。能跟现在分词作宾语补足语的常见动词有:make、let、have、look at、see、watch、hear、listen to、notice、feel。(三让、三看、两听、注意感觉)。例如:

①I heard the girl singing in the classroom.

②I saw a long queue outside the bank waiting for it to open.

③The baby watched his dad shaving his face with interest.

④We saw the teacher making the experiment .

过去分词做宾补的两大特征:一是及物动词的过去分词做宾补与宾语有动宾关系;二是不及物动词的过去分词做宾补与宾语有主谓关系,多用来表示动作已经完成。能借过去分词做宾补的常见动词有:have,make,see,hear,find,leave,want等。例如:

①I've never heard the song sung in English.

②I saw the horse tied to a tree.

③People found the thief escaped.

4.作表语:分词放在系动词后面作表语。现在分词作表语指物,过去分词作表语指人。例如:

①The movie is inspiring.

②He is inspired by the movie.

③The story he told us was very interesting.

④He is interested in English.

非谓语动词这个体系非常庞大复杂,同学们目前只要把一些基本概念搞清楚,随着接触的额英语句式越来越多,对非谓语动词的认识也会自然而然地加深的。我以后会不定期的介绍一些非谓语动词的下面的额细节用法。

非谓语动词单句改错之真题训练:

1. David and I wanted go off to find help but Bill insisted on staying near the car.

2. …rather than go into the forest and getting lost.

3.David pointed to a path which he thought would probably leading to a village.

4. I went back to get David and helped him to stood up.

5.Charles and Linda Mason do all of these things as well as climbed building.

6.Modern people know more about health, have better food, and to live in clearer surroundings.

7.The World Health Organization and other organizations are working improve health all over the world.

8.…you pay the cost of send a postcard, the librarian will write to you.

9....and let you to know when the book you want has returned.

10. I want to thank you again for have me in your home for the summer holidays.

11. I had always wanted return to the village after moving away.

12.It was very kind of them to meet me at the railway station and drove me to their home.

13.I look forward to hear from you soon.

14. Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also gives us a sense of fair play and team spirit.

15. I was often a little tired after a day's work and watch TV demands very little effort.

16.I'd like very much come but I have an examination on Monday morning.

17. I'll spend the whole weekend reading and prepare for it.

18. But then there is always more mysteries look into.

19.After learn the basics of the subject, nothing else seemed very practical to me.

20. My parents love me dearly of course and will do all they can make sure that I get a good education.

21.He did not want share things with other people.

22.That is, a game of tennis making him very busy.

23. As we climbed the mountain, we fed monkeys, visiting temples and told stories.

24. But his parents think go to college is more important than playing sports.

25. …children may not develop the habit of read and the ability to enjoy themselves.

26.…to make children to want things that they don't really need.

27. Soon I began to enjoy talk to myself on paper as I was learning to express myself in simple English.

28. Shake her head, she said, “It isn't a good time to do that, dear.'

29.It's like going to a huge library without have to walk around to find your books.

30. I am thinking of making a trip to London, and visit the British Museum and some parks.

31. I have some records giving to me as birthday gifts.

32. I dream of standing on the platform in the classroom and give lessons to lovely boys and girls.

非谓语动词单句改错之模拟训练:

1. In those days we were forced work twelve hours a day.

2. It's very difficult for a foreigner learn Chinese.

3. It was silly of you believe what he said.

4. He was made wash the boss's car once a day.

5. I'll let you to know as soon as I hear from her.

6. I waved to her but failed attract her attention.

7. I have already seen the film twice. I don't want see it any more.

8. What I want know is when all this happened.

9. It was clear that he wanted be alone.

10.Most children are interested in listen to stories.

11.Walk quickly is difficult for an old man.

12. Be careful in cross the street.

13. The film is very interesting. It is worth see twice.

14.Find work is very difficult these days.

15. Most of us students enjoy ask questions in English.

16. Look, some of my classmates are practising speak English.

17. Teach a child to sing and dance is very interesting.

18. Learn to speak English is more difficult than to write it.

19. My friend Jim is very good at making things and repair things.

20. He decided to go to the south, find a good job and living there.

21. It was very kind of you to buy us so much fruit and seeing us at the station.

22. Excuse me, would you to tell me the way to the zoo?

非谓语动词单句改错之提升训练:

1. A lot of money has been spent to buy the book.

2. You will have to pay the cost of send a postcard.

3. What he did was puzzled.

4. I will spend a week reading and prepare for the examination.

5. Charles and Linda do all of these things as well as climbed buildings.

6. Yesterday I had my bad tooth pulling out.

7. I heard her singing a song which moved me to tears.

8. I made a terrible mistake. I regretted not to taking your advice.

9. When we reached the top of the mountain, we stopped to having a rest before we went down the mountain.

10. There'll be a good film tonight, remember to seeing it on time!

11. The game was over, she went home.

12. When speaking, you must make yourself hear.

13. She pretended not to seeing me when I came in.

14. Abraham Lincoln was considered to being one of the greatest of all American presidents.

15. Following by the officers, the general inspected the army.

16. There's something wrong with my car, and it needs repaired.

17. Don't burn the falling leaves on the ground.

18. Losing in thought, he almost ran into a car in front of him.

19. I enjoy listen to the classic music.

20. Judge by what he wears, he is a farmer.

非谓语动词单句改错之真题训练:

1.wanted 后加 to,因为want 后要接不定式

2. getting 改 get,因为 get 与其前的go 并列

3. leading 改为 lead,因为其前有助动词 would

4.stood 改为 stand,因为 to stand up 在此为不定式结构

5.climbed 改为 climb / climbing,若将 as well as 视为连词,则将 climbed 改为 climb,因为它与其前的 do 并列;若将 as well as 视为介词,则 climbing,因为介词后动词用动名词

6.去掉live 前的 to,因为 live 与其前的 know, have 并列

7. improve前加to,to improve…为表目的的不定式短语

8.send改为sending,因为介词后接动名词作宾语

9.去掉 know 前的 to,因为其前有动词 let

10.have改为having,因为介词后接动名词作宾语

11.return前加 to,因为 want 后要接不定式

12. drove改为 drive,因为 drive 与其前的 to meet 并列,此处的 drive 为省略 to 的不定式

13. hear改为 hearing,因为其前的 to 是介词

14. 第一个play改为 playing,因为动词原形不能用作主语

15. watch改为 watching,因为动词原形不能用作主语

16. come 前加 to,因为 would like 后接不定式

17.prepare 改为 preparing,因为它与其前的 reading 并列,与其前所用的动词 spend 有关

18.look 前加 to,此处为不定式作后置定语

19.learn 改为learning,因为介词后接动名词作宾语

20.make 前加 to,因为 to make… 在此用作目的状语,注意句型 do all one can to do sth

21.want 后加 to,因为want 后要接不定式

22. making 改为made,因为缺谓语,不能用非谓语形式,根据上下文用一般过去时

23.visiting 改为 visited,因为它与其前的 fed 和其后的 told 并列

24.go 改为 going,因为动词原形不能用作主语

25.read 改为 reading,因为介词后要接动名词

26.去掉 want 前的 to,因为 want…在此用作使役动词 make 的宾语补足语

27.talk 改为 talking,因为动词 enjoy 后要接动名词作宾语

28.Shake 改为 Shaking,现在分词表伴随

29.have 改为 having,介词后用动名词作宾语

30.visit 改为 visiting,因visit与making并列,作介词of的宾语

31.giving 改为 given,'把某物给某人'是give sth to sb;句中records与give是被动关系,故用过去分词

32. give改为giving,因它与standing并列,作dream of的宾语

非谓语动词单句改错之模拟训练:

1. work 前加 to,此句为 force sb to do sth 的被动形式。

2. learn 前加 to,此句用的是 it's difficult for sb to do sth 句型。

3. believe 前加 to,此句用的是 it's silly of sb to do sth 句型。

4.wash 前加 to,make sb do sth 中的 do 不能带to,但若 make 用于被动语态,则其后的 do 要带 to。

5. 去掉 to,因为 let 后用作宾语补足语的不定式不能带 to。

6. attract 前加 to,fail to do sth 意为'未能做某事'。

7.see 前加 to,want(想要)后接动词要用不定式。

8. know 前加 to,want(想要)后接动词要用不定式。

9.be 前加 to,want(想要)后接动词要用不定式。

10. listen 改为 listening,介词后接动名词作宾语。

11. Walk 改为 Walking,用作主语要用动名词,不用动词原形。注意不能将 walk 视为名词,因为其后有副词修饰语 quickly。

12. cross 改为 crossing,介词后接动名词作宾语。

13. see 改为 seeing,worth 后接动词要用动名词形式。

14. Find 改为 Finding,用作主语要用动名词,不用动词原形。

15. ask 改为 asking,enjoy 后接动词作宾语要用动名词形式。

16. speak 改为 speaking,practise 后接动词作宾语要用动名词形式。

17. Teach 改为 Teaching,用作主语要用动名词,不用动词原形。

18. Learn 改为 Learning,用作主语要用动名词,不用动词原形。

19. repair 改为 repairing,因它与 making 并列,一起用作介词 at 的宾语。

20. living 改为 live,因它与其前的 go to…, find… 并列。

21. seeing 改为 see,因它与 to buy 并列,see 为省略 to 的不定式。

22. 去掉 tell 前的 to,因 would you… 后应接动词原形,不接不定式。

非谓语动词单句改错之提升训练:

1. to buy改为buying。

2. send改为sending。介词of后要求用动名词作宾语。

3. puzzled改为puzzling。puzzling表示'令人疑惑不解的'意思。

4. prepare改为preparing。preparing和前面的 reading是并列结构。

5. climbed改为climbing。as well as是介词短语,后面接动名词或名词。

6. pulling改为pulled。have the tooth pulled out表示'请人拔牙'的意思。

7. singing改为sing。从后面可以看出来,'我'听完了整首歌曲,强调动作的全过程,用不定式作宾补。

8. 去掉to,用动名词表示对已发生过的事情的后悔。

9. having改为have。stop的目的是have a rest。

10. seeing改为 see。还未看电影。

11. was改为being。独立主格结构。

12. hear改为heard。make oneself heard意为'使别人听到自己的话'。

13. seeing改为 see。pretend后面要求接不定式作宾语。

14. being改为be。consider后用不定式作宾补。

15. following改为followed。过去分词表被动。

16. repaired 改为repairing。动名词主动形式,表被动意义。

17. falling改为fallen。过去分词作定语,强调动作的完成。

18. losing改为lost。be lost in thought 表示'陷入深思'。

19. listen改为listening。enjoy后面用动名词作宾语。

20. Judge改为Judging。Judging by…为一固定说法。

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